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微型电机集电装置材质的选取需要满足哪些条件?

来源:http://www.jnmcd.com 发布时间:2019-06-12 浏览:
1集电环构造集电环构造按其运用性质分为:全体塑料压铸式集电环(适用于小型微型电机);装配式集电环(中型微型电机);螺杆装配式集电环(中、低速大型微型电机);热套式集电环(适用于高速微型电机)。
1 collector ring structure collector ring structure is divided into: all plastic die-casting collector ring (suitable for small micro-motors); assembly collector ring (medium-sized micro-motors); screw assembly collector ring (medium and low-speed large micro-motors); hot sleeve collector ring (suitable for high-speed micro-motors).
2集电环原料选择根据导电功用、与电刷滑动触摸时,有必要具有的耐磨性和安稳的滑动触摸特性,以及机械强度的需求,滑环可用黄铜、青铜、低碳钢或中碳钢制成,高速微型电机的滑环用高强度合金钢(如35SMin)制成。关于腐蚀性场所,可以运用不锈钢滑环,但不锈钢的滑动特性不安稳,与电刷组合不合适通常使电刷发作跳动,简单构成电刷温升过高或异常磨损,尽量不选用此原料。
According to the conductive function, sliding touch with brush, it is necessary to have wear resistance, stable sliding touch characteristics and mechanical strength. The sliding ring can be made of brass, bronze, low carbon steel or medium carbon steel. The sliding ring of high speed micro motor is made of high strength alloy steel (such as 35SMin). For corrosive places, stainless steel sliding rings can be used, but the sliding characteristics of stainless steel are not stable, and the inappropriate combination with brushes usually causes the brush to jump, which simply constitutes excessive temperature rise or abnormal wear of brushes, so as not to use this raw material as far as possible.
集电环上金属环的直径和宽度,与经过电流的巨细、电刷数量、电刷尺度、散热面积及电刷所能接受的圆周速度等要素有关。金属环之间的间隔应根据绕组电压所需绝缘间隔及安装刷握、电刷等零件所需空间决议。当金属环表面的圆周速度为3070m/s时,金属环表面的气膜将致使电刷浮动,使电刷与金属环触摸不良,电流分布不均而呈现火花、电蚀,加快金属环的磨损和电刷发热。在金属环表加工出螺旋槽可避免此种情况发作。当集电环经过的电流达1000A以上时,金属环应开通风孔或加装电扇,以增强金属环的冷却。
The diameter and width of the metal ring on the collector ring are related to the current passing through, the number of brushes, the scale of brushes, the heat dissipation area and the acceptable circumferential velocity of brushes. The interval between metal rings shall be determined according to the insulation interval required for winding voltage and the space required for installing brush holders, brushes and other parts. When the circumferential velocity of the metal ring surface is 3070m/s, the gas film on the metal ring surface will cause the brush to float, making the brush and the metal ring touch badly, and the current distribution is uneven, showing sparks and erosion, accelerating the wear and heat of the metal ring. The spiral groove can be machined on the surface of the metal ring to avoid the occurrence of such a situation. When the current passing through the collector ring exceeds 1000A, the metal ring should be ventilated or equipped with fans to enhance the cooling of the metal ring.
山东微型电机
3电刷原料选择电刷种类较多,大致可分为碳质电刷和金属质电刷两大类。因金属石墨电刷容许较大的电流密度,故可称心中低转速微型电机的需求。关于高转速的微型电机(例如2p微型电机)则应选用滑动特性和安稳特性好的自然石墨电刷。
3 There are many kinds of brushes for brush materials, which can be roughly divided into carbon brushes and metal brushes. Because metal graphite brushes permit large current density, they can meet the needs of low speed micro motors. For high-speed micro-motors (such as 2p micro-motors), natural graphite brushes with good sliding and stability characteristics should be selected.
选择电刷时,要归结考虑微型电机对电刷的技艺需求和电刷的技艺特性。电刷的技艺特性包括触摸特性和理化特性。影响电刷触摸特性的要素主要有圆周速度、电流密度、施于电刷的单位压力及四周介质情况。电刷的触摸特性主要有触摸电压降和抵触系数。
When choosing brushes, it is necessary to consider the technical requirements of micro motors for brushes and the technical characteristics of brushes. The technical characteristics of brushes include touch characteristics and physical and chemical characteristics. The main factors affecting the touch characteristics of brushes are circumferential velocity, current density, unit pressure applied to brushes and surrounding media. The touch characteristics of brush mainly include touch voltage drop and resistance coefficient.
触摸电压降是电流经过电刷、触摸点薄膜、集电环的电压降。每一种电刷的触摸电压降都有其极限值。金属石墨电刷的触摸电压降比石墨电刷和电化石墨电刷的低。假设超越触摸电压降的极限值,滑动触摸点的电损耗将过大,并致使过热。
Touch voltage drop is the voltage drop of current passing through brush, touch point film and collector ring. The touch voltage drop of each brush has its limit value. The touch voltage drop of metallic graphite brushes is lower than that of graphite brushes and graphite brushes. Assuming that the threshold value of touch voltage drop is exceeded, the electric loss of sliding touch point will be too large and cause overheating.
对集电环来说,以选用触摸电压较低的电刷较为合适。
For collector ring, brush with lower touch voltage is more suitable.
抵触是电刷正常运转有必要考虑的一个重要要素,它是发作热量的缘由之一。集电环表面薄膜的构成和功用,对抵触情况的影响比拟显著,而它又受电刷和集电环的原料、触摸面情况和运转条件的影响。抵触情况通常用电刷的抵触系数权衡。当电刷数量越多,抵触系数越大和圆周速度越高时,抵触损耗也就越大。从机械损耗方面来看,用于高速微型电机的电刷,需求抵触系数为最小。
Conflict is an important factor to be considered in the normal operation of brushes. It is one of the reasons for heat attack. The composition and function of the film on the collector ring surface have a significant impact on the resistance, and it is also affected by the raw materials, touch surface and operation conditions of the brush and collector ring. The conflict situation is usually weighed by the resistance coefficient of the brush. The larger the number of brushes, the larger the resistance coefficient and the higher the circumferential velocity, the greater the resistance loss. From the point of view of mechanical loss, the demand conflict coefficient of brushes used in high-speed micro motors is the smallest.
猛烈的抵触会使电刷在运转过程中致使振荡,宣布噪声,并致使触摸不安稳。严峻时,可使电刷碎裂。
Violent conflict can cause the brush to oscillate, announce noise and unstable touch during operation. In severe cases, brushes can be broken.
电刷的理化特性主要有电阻率、硬度和灰分杂质。根据电阻率的巨细可粗略地判定电刷的适用范围。电阻率高的电刷适用于换向困难的微型电机;中等电阻率的电刷适用于普通直流微型电机;低电阻率的电刷适用于低压微型电机。电刷的硬度和电阻率可归结反映电刷质量和运用功用的普通情况。
The physical and chemical properties of brushes include resistivity, hardness and ash impurities. The applicability of brushes can be roughly determined according to the size of resistivity. Brushes with high resistivity are suitable for micro motors with difficult commutation, brushes with medium resistivity are suitable for ordinary DC micro motors, and brushes with low resistivity are suitable for low voltage micro motors. The hardness and resistivity of the brush can be summed up to reflect the general situation of the quality and function of the brush.
电阻率偏高而硬度偏低,说明电刷的密度低,易发作较大的磨损。电刷中含有少数极纤细的灰分,能进步电刷的耐磨功用,但是,假设灰分杂质中含有少数硬质磨料颗粒,如碳化铁、碳化硅(即金刚砂),会把集电环表面划成沟槽,对微型电机损伤极大。
High resistivity and low hardness indicate that the brush has low density and is prone to wear. The brush contains a small amount of very fine ash, which can improve the wear resistance of the brush. However, assuming that there are a few hard abrasive particles in the ash impurities, such as iron carbide and silicon carbide (i.e. diamond), the surface of the collector ring will be grooved, which will cause great damage to the micro-motor.
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