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无刷电机和有刷电机的区别在哪里?

来源:http://www.jnmcd.com 发布时间:2020-06-17 浏览:
有刷电机工作原理
Working principle of brush motor
有刷电机是大家更早接触的一类电机,中学时物理课堂上介绍电动机也是以它为模型来展示的。有刷电机的主要结构就是定子+转子+电刷,通过旋转磁场获得转动力矩,从而输出动能。电刷与换向器不断接触摩擦,在转动中起到导电和换相作用。
The brush motor is the first type of motor that we contact. It is also used as a model to show the introduction of the motor in the physics class in middle school. The main structure of the brush motor is stator + rotor + brush. The rotating torque is obtained through the rotating magnetic field, thus the kinetic energy is output. The brush and the commutator are in constant contact and friction, and play the role of conducting and commutating in rotation.
有刷电机采用机械换向,磁极不动,线圈旋转。电机工作时,线圈和换向器旋转,磁钢和碳刷不转,线圈电流方向的交替变化是随电机转动的换相器和电刷来完成的。
The brush motor adopts mechanical commutation, the magnetic pole does not move, and the coil rotates. When the motor works, the coil and commutator rotate, the magnetic steel and carbon brush do not rotate, and the alternating change of coil current direction is completed by the commutator and brush rotating with the motor.
在有刷电机中,这个过程是将各组线圈的两个电源输入端,依次排成一个环,相互之间用绝缘材料分隔,组成一个象圆柱体的东西,与电机轴连成一体,电源通过两个碳元素做成的小柱子(碳刷),在弹簧压力的作用下,从两个特定的固定位置,压在上面线圈电源输入环状圆柱上的两点,给一组线圈通电。
In a brush motor, the process is to arrange two power input ends of each coil into one ring in turn, separate them with insulating materials, and form a cylinder like thing, which is integrated with the motor shaft. The power supply is made of two carbon elements through a small column (carbon brush). Under the action of spring pressure, from two specific fixed positions, the coil power supply is pressed on top Enter two points on the circular cylinder to energize a set of coils.
随着电机转动,不同时刻给不同线圈或同一个线圈的不同的两极通电,使得线圈产生磁场的N-S极与更靠近的永磁铁定子的N-S极有一个适合的角度差,磁场异性相吸、同性相斥,产生力量,推动电机转动。碳电极在线圈接线头上滑动,象刷子在物体表面刷,因此叫碳“刷”。
With the rotation of the motor, the different poles of different coils or the same coil are energized at different times, so that the N-S pole of the coil generating magnetic field has a suitable angle difference with the N-S pole of the nearest permanent magnet stator, and the magnetic field attracts and repels each other in opposite direction, generating force, and promoting the rotation of the electric machine. The carbon electrode slides on the coil connector like a brush on the surface of an object, so it is called a carbon "brush".
相互滑动,会摩擦碳刷,造成损耗,需要定期更换碳刷;碳刷与线圈接线头之间通断交替,会发生电火花,产生电磁破,干扰电子设备。
Sliding each other will rub the carbon brush and cause loss, so it is necessary to replace the carbon brush regularly; the on-off alternation between the carbon brush and the coil terminal will cause electric sparks, electromagnetic damage and interference with electronic equipment.
无刷电机工作原理
Working principle of BLDCM
无刷电机中,换相的工作交由控制器中的控制电路(一般为霍尔传感器+控制器,更先进的技术是磁编码器)来完成。
In the BLDCM, the work of commutation is done by the control circuit in the controller (generally Hall sensor + controller, the more advanced technology is magnetic encoder).
无刷电机采取电子换向,线圈不动,磁极旋转。无刷电机,是使用一套电子设备,通过霍尔元件,感知永磁体磁极的位置,根据这种感知,使用电子线路,适时切换线圈中电流的方向,保证产生正确方向的磁力,来驱动电机。消除了有刷电机的缺点。
The electric commutation is adopted for the BLDCM, the coil does not move and the pole rotates. The BLDCM uses a set of electronic equipment to sense the position of permanent magnet pole through Hall element. According to this perception, the electronic circuit is used to switch the direction of current in the coil timely to ensure that the magnetic force in the correct direction is generated to drive the motor. The disadvantages of the brush motor are eliminated.
这些电路,就是电机控制器。无刷电机的控制器,还可以实现一些有刷电机不能实现的功能,比如调整电源切换角,制动电机,使电机反转,锁住电机,利用刹车信号,停止给电机供电。现在电瓶车的电子报警锁,就充分利用了这些功能。
These circuits are motor controllers. The controller of the BLDCM can also realize some functions that the BLDCM can not achieve, such as adjusting the power switch angle, braking the motor, reversing the motor, locking the motor, using the brake signal, stopping the power supply to the motor. Now the electronic alarm lock of battery car makes full use of these functions.
无刷直流电机由电动机主体和驱动器组成,是一种典型的机电一体化产品。由于无刷直流电动机是以自控式运行的,所以不会象变频调速下重载启动的同步电机那样在转子上另加启动绕组,也不会在负载突变时产生振荡和失步。
BLDCM is a typical mechatronics product, which is composed of motor body and driver. Because the BLDCM is operated by automatic control, it will not add additional starting winding on the rotor like the synchronous motor started by heavy load under frequency conversion and speed regulation, nor will it produce oscillation and out of step when the load suddenly changes.
有刷电机与无刷电机调速方式的区别
The difference of speed regulation between brush motor and non brush motor
实际上两种电机的控制都是调压,只是由于无刷直流采用了电子换向,所以要有数字控制才可以实现了,而有刷直流是通过碳刷换向的,利用可控硅等传统模拟电路都可以控制,比较简单。
In fact, the control of both kinds of motors is voltage regulation. Only because the electronic commutation is adopted in the BLDCM, digital control is needed to realize it. The brush DC is commutation through the carbon brush, and the traditional analog circuits such as SCR can be controlled, which is relatively simple.
1、有刷马达调速过程是调整马达供电电源电压的高低。调整后的电压电流通过整流子及电刷地转换,改变电极产生的磁场强弱,达到改变转速的目的。这一过程被称之为变压调速。
1. The speed regulation process of the brush motor is to adjust the voltage of the motor power supply. The adjusted voltage and current are converted through commutator and brush to change the strength of the magnetic field generated by the electrode, so as to change the speed. This process is called variable voltage speed regulation.
2、无刷马达调速过程是马达的供电电源的电压不变,改变电调的控制信号,通过微处理器再改变大功率MOS管的开关速率,来实现转速的改变。这一过程被称之为变频调速。
2. The speed regulation process of the BLDCM is that the voltage of the power supply of the motor is constant, the control signal of the motor is changed, and the speed is changed by changing the switch speed of the high power MOS transistor through the microprocessor. This process is called frequency control.
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