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无刷电机的工作原理及优点

来源:http://www.jnmcd.com 发布时间:2020-06-22 浏览:
一、无刷电机的工作原理:
1、 Working principle of BLDCM:
模型无刷电机的参数指标,除了外形尺寸〔外径、长度、轴径等〕重量、电压范围、空载电流、电流等参数外,还少不了一个重要指标--KV值,这个数值是无刷电机独有的一个性能参数,是判断无刷电机性能特点的一个重要数据。
In addition to the parameters such as external dimension (outer diameter, length, shaft diameter, etc.) weight, voltage range, no-load current and maximum current, the parameter index of the model BLDCM is also an important index Kv value, which is a unique performance parameter of the BLDCM and an important data for judging the performance characteristics of the BLDCM.
无刷直流电动机是采用半导体开关器件来实现电子换向的,即用电子开关器件代替传统的接触式换向器和电刷。它具有可靠性高、无换向火花、机械噪声低等优点,广泛应用于高档录音座、录像机、电子仪器及自动化办公设备中。
The electronic commutation of BLDCM is realized by semiconductor switch device, which is to replace the traditional contact commutator and brush with electronic switch device. It has the advantages of high reliability, no commutation spark, low mechanical noise, and is widely used in high-grade recording base, video recorder, electronic instruments and automatic office equipment.
无刷直流电动机由永磁体转子、多极绕组定子、位置传感器等组成。位置传感按转子位置的变化,沿着一定次序对定子绕组的电流进行换流(即检测转子磁极相对定子绕组的位置,并在确定的位置处产生位置传感信号,经信号转换电路处理后去控制功率开关电路,按一定的逻辑关系进行绕组电流切换)。定子绕组的工作电压由位置传感器输出控制的电子开关电路提供。
The BLDCM consists of permanent magnet rotor, multi pole winding stator and position sensor. According to the change of the rotor position, the position sensor exchanges the current of the stator winding in a certain order (that is, detecting the position of the rotor pole relative to the stator winding, generating the position sensor signal at the determined position, controlling the power switch circuit after the signal conversion circuit processing, and switching the winding current according to a certain logical relationship). The working voltage of the stator winding is provided by the electronic switch circuit controlled by the position sensor output.
位置传感器有磁敏式、光电式和电磁式三种类型。
There are three types of position sensor: magnetic sensor, photoelectric sensor and electromagnetic sensor.
采用磁敏式位置传感器的无刷直流电动机,其磁敏传感器件(例如霍尔元件、磁敏二极管、磁敏诂极管、磁敏电阻器或专用集成电路等)装在定子组件上,用来检测永磁体、转子旋转时产生的磁场变化。
For the BLDCM with magnetic position sensor, the magnetic sensor (such as hall element, magnetic diode, magnetic sensitive transistor, magnetic sensitive resistor or special integrated circuit) is installed on the stator assembly to detect the magnetic field change when the permanent magnet and rotor rotate.
采用光电式位置传感器的无刷直流电动机,在定子组件上按一定位置配置了光电传感器件,转子上装有遮光板,光源为发光二极管或小灯泡。转子旋转时,由于遮光板的作用,定子上的光敏元器件将会按一定频率间歇间生脉冲信号。 采用电磁式位置传感器的无刷直流电动机,是在定子组件上安装有电磁传感器部件(例如耦合变压器、接近开关、LC谐振电路等),当永磁体转子位置发生变化时,电磁效应将使电磁传感器产生高频调制信号(其幅值随转子位置而变化)。
For the BLDCM with photoelectric position sensor, the stator assembly is equipped with photoelectric sensor according to a certain position, the rotor is equipped with light shield, and the light source is led or small bulb. When the rotor rotates, the photosensitive components on the stator will generate pulse signals intermittently at a certain frequency due to the function of the light shield. The BLDCM with electromagnetic position sensor is equipped with electromagnetic sensor components (such as coupling transformer, proximity switch, LC resonance circuit, etc.) on the stator assembly. When the permanent magnet rotor position changes, the electromagnetic effect will make the electromagnetic sensor produce high frequency modulation signal (its amplitude changes with the rotor position).
二、无刷电机的优点:
2、 Advantages of BLDCM:
1、无电刷、低干扰
1. No brush, low interference
无刷电机去除了电刷,更直接的变化就是没有了有刷电机运转时产生的电火花,这样就极大减少了电火花对遥控无线电设备的干扰。
The most direct change is that there is no electric spark generated when the brush motor is running, which greatly reduces the interference of the electric spark to the remote control radio equipment.
2、噪音低,运转顺畅
2. Low noise, smooth operation
无刷电机没有了电刷,运转时摩擦力大大减小,运行顺畅,噪音会低许多,这个优点对于模型运行稳定性是一个巨大的支持。
Without the brush, the friction is greatly reduced, the running is smooth, and the noise is much lower. This advantage is a huge support for the running stability of the model.
3、寿命长,低维护成本
3. Long life, low maintenance cost
少了电刷,无刷电机的磨损主要是在轴承上了,从机械角度看,无刷电机几乎是一种免维护的电动机了,必要的时候,只需做一些除尘维护即可。 上下一比较,就知道无刷电机相对于有刷电机的优势在哪里了,但是万事都不是绝对的,有刷电机低速扭力性能优异、转矩大等性能特点是无刷电机不可替代的,不过就无刷电机的使用方便性来看,随着无刷控制器的成本下降趋势和国内外无刷技术的发展与市场竞争,无刷动力系统正在高速的发展与普及阶段重,这也极大促进了模型运动的发展。
Without electric brush, the wear of the brush less motor is mainly on the bearing. From the mechanical point of view, the brush less motor is almost a maintenance free motor. When necessary, it only needs to do some dust removal maintenance. In the next comparison, we will know the advantages of the BLDCM compared with the BLDCM, but everything is not absolute. The performance characteristics of the BLDCM, such as excellent low-speed torque performance and large torque, are irreplaceable. However, in terms of the ease of use of the BLDCM, with the declining cost of the BLDCM and the development of the BLDCM technology at home and abroad, it is competing with the market As a result, the development of the model motion is greatly promoted.
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