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无刷电机的功能分析及应用

来源:http://www.jnmcd.com 发布时间:2020-07-27 浏览:
有刷和无刷电机之间显著的区别是是否配置有常见的电刷-换向器(Brush-Commutator)。过去一个世纪以来,有刷直流电机的换向一直是通过石墨电刷与安装在转子上的环形换向器相接触来实现的。
The significant difference between brushless and brushless motors is whether there is a common brush commutator. For the past century, the commutation of Brushless DC motors has been realized by the contact of graphite brush and ring commutator installed on the rotor.
而无刷电机则通过霍尔传感器(Hallsensor)把转子位置反馈回控制电路,使其能够获知电机相位换向(顺序)的准确时间。大多数无刷电机生产商生产的电机都具有三个霍尔效应定位传感器。由于无刷电机没有电刷,故也没有相关接口,因此更干净,声学噪声更小,事实上无需维护,寿命更长。
The brushless motor uses the hall sensor to feedback the rotor position back to the control circuit, so that it can know the accurate time of motor phase commutation (sequence). Most brushless motor manufacturers produce motors with three Hall effect position sensors. Because the brushless motor has no brush, there is no relevant interface, so it is cleaner, less acoustic noise, in fact, no maintenance and longer service life.
那么,还有什么是有待更进一步的呢?尽管电机业对无刷电机优势的认识日益加深,但迄今工作仍只限于开发上述的无刷电机霍尔传感器控制电子元件。
So, what needs to be further? Although the motor industry is increasingly aware of the advantages of brushless motor, so far, the work is still limited to the development of the above-mentioned BLM Hall sensor control electronic components.
目前对电机驱动盒和电机驱动卡开发的需求十分急迫,它们能为设计人员提供微控制器、可编程能力和驱动器,并把所有这些功能都集成在一个单一封装内。不论是在数字还是模拟模式下,本质上是这种集成方式完成各种电机应用必需的换向。没有这种集成,无刷电机就不起作用。
At present, there is an urgent need for the development of motor drive box and motor drive card. They can provide designers with microcontrollers, programmable capabilities and drivers, and integrate all these functions into a single package. Whether in digital or analog mode, it is essentially this integrated way to complete the commutation necessary for various motor applications. Without this integration, the brushless motor will not work.
在选择驱动器时,脉宽调制(PWM)IC正逐渐作为一种技术受到认可。驱动器的选择仅取决于效率。线性电路的缺点在中端开始突显,,此时输出电平为50%左右。在这种输出电平时,旁路元件的阻抗等于负载阻抗,这意味着放大器产生的热量等于供给负载的功率!简言之,当以中等功率等级驱动电阻式负载时,线性控制电路出现50%的效率。
Pulse width modulation (PWM) IC is gradually being recognized as a preferred technology when selecting the best driver. The choice of the best drive depends only on efficiency. The disadvantages of linear circuit begin to highlight in the middle end, and the output level is about 50%. In this output level, the impedance of the bypass element is equal to the load impedance, which means that the heat generated by the amplifier is equal to the power supplied to the load! In short, when the resistive load is driven at a medium power level, the linear control circuit has a minimum efficiency of 50%.
相对于有百年历史的有刷电机而言,无刷电机更干净、纤小和轻便,并正在稳步快速地向前发展。对于它们稳定且不断增加的受欢迎程度,仅以“是时候了”来概括显然过于保守。
Compared with the one hundred year old brushless motor, brushless motor is cleaner, smaller and lighter, and is developing steadily and rapidly. For their stable and increasing popularity, it is obviously too conservative to simply summarize them as "it's time".
就在两年前,无刷电机还远比有刷电机昂贵。但受惠于设计技术和材料技术的进步,其价格急剧降低。如今,两种电机技术之间的成本差异只有10%。而更显著的转变则是设计人员开始紧密结合工业应用进行工作。传统上,这被认为属于硬核式有刷电机的应用领域,因为“干净”的工作环境并不是更重要的。但现在,由于成本门槛的降低,无刷电机不断获得新的应用。
Just two years ago, brushless motors were far more expensive than brushless motors. However, thanks to the progress of design technology and material technology, its price has dropped sharply. Today, the cost difference between the two motor technologies is only 10%. The most significant change is that designers begin to work closely with industrial applications. Traditionally, this has been considered to be a hard core brush motor application because a "clean" working environment is not the most important. But now, due to the reduction of the cost threshold, brushless motor is getting new applications.
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