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无刷直流电机是怎样工作的?

来源:http://www.jnmcd.com 发布时间:2019-01-31 浏览:
无刷直流电机由电动机主体和驱动器组成,是一种典型的机电一体化产品。 电动机的定子绕组多做成三相对称星形接法,同三相异步电动机十分相似。电动机的转子上粘有已充磁的永磁体 ,为了检测电动机转子的极性,在电动机内装有位置传感器。驱动器由功率电子器件和集成电路等构成,其功能是:接受电动机的启动、停止、制动信号,以控制电动机的启动、停止和制动;接受位置传感器信号和正反转信号,用来控制逆变桥各功率管的通断,产生连续转矩;接受速度指令和速度反馈信号,用来控制和调整转速;提供保护和显示等等。
Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) is a typical mechatronics product, which consists of motor main body and driver. The stator windings of the motor are mostly made into three-phase symmetrical star connection, which is very similar to the three-phase asynchronous motor. In order to detect the polarity of the motor rotor, a position sensor is installed in the motor. The driver is composed of power electronic devices and integrated circuits. Its functions are: to receive the starting, stopping and braking signals of the motor to control the starting, stopping and braking of the motor; to receive the position sensor signals and the positive and negative rotation signals to control the switching on and off of the power transistors of the inverting bridge and to generate continuous torque; to receive speed instructions and speed feedback signals for control and adjustment. Speed; Provide protection and display, etc.
直流电机具有响应快速、较大的起动转矩、从零转速至额定转速具备可提供额定转矩的性能,但直流电机的优点也正是它的缺点,因为直流电机要产生额定负载下恒定转矩的性能,则电枢磁场与转子磁场须恒维持90°,这就要藉由碳刷及整流子。
山东自动门电机
DC motor has fast response, large starting torque, and can provide rated torque from zero to rated speed. But the advantage of DC motor is just its disadvantage. For DC motor to produce constant torque performance under rated load, the armature magnetic field and rotor magnetic field must be maintained at 90 degrees, which needs carbon brush and rectifier.
碳刷及整流子在电机转动时会产生火花、碳粉因此除了会造成组件损坏之外,使用场合也受到限制。交流电机没有碳刷及整流子,免维护、坚固、应用广,但特性上若要达到相当于直流电机的性能须用复杂控制技术才能达到。现今半导体发展迅速功率组件切换频率加快许多,提升驱动电机的性能。微处理机速度亦越来越快,可实现将交流电机控制置于一旋转的两轴直角坐标系统中,适当控制交流电机在两轴电流分量,达到类似直流电机控制并有与直流电机相当的性能。
Carbon brushes and rectifiers produce sparks and powders when the motor rotates. Therefore, in addition to causing damage to components, their use is limited. AC motors have no carbon brushes and rectifiers. They are maintenance-free, robust and widely used. However, complex control techniques are needed to achieve the performance equivalent to that of DC motors. Nowadays, with the rapid development of semiconductor, the switching frequency of power components has been accelerated a lot, which improves the performance of driving motors. The speed of microprocessor is also faster and faster. It can put AC motor control in a rotating two-axis rectangular coordinate system and properly control the current component of AC motor in two axes, so as to achieve the control of similar DC motor and have the same performance as DC motor.
此外已有很多微处理机将控制电机必需的功能做在芯片中,而且体积越来越小;像模拟/数字转换器、脉冲宽度调制等。直流无刷电机即是以电子方式控制交流电机换相,得到类似直流电机特性又没有直流电机机构上缺失的一种应用。
In addition, many microprocessors have made the necessary functions of controlling motors into chips, and the volume is becoming smaller and smaller, such as analog-to-digital converter, pulse width modulation, and so on. Brushless DC motor is an application that controls the commutation of AC motor electronically and obtains the similar characteristics of DC motor without the absence of DC motor mechanism.
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