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基于自动门的步进电机的系统设计

来源:http://www.jnmcd.com 发布时间:2019-04-10 浏览:
动门的重量普通在数公斤到数十公斤之间,要想带动它们在导轨上灵敏工作,需求一个较大功率的步进电机。本文选用三相三线式混合式步进电机(57HS350B),其工作电压为24 V,电流为5.8 A,而MSP430单片机的最大灌电流为30 mA。由于单片机没有方法直接控制电机工作,需求驱动电路,因而驱动电路的性能决议了自动门的工作性能。采用分立元件搭建驱动电路,带动自动门工作。用MSP430单片机作为主控制器,静态工作电流小,合适长时间工作,搭建驱动电流,驱动步进电机工作,带动自动门运动,这是目前自动门控制中较为抢先的尝试,是本文的创新点。
The weight of the moving door is usually between several kilograms and tens of kilograms. In order to drive them to work sensitively on the guide rail, a high-power stepping motor is needed. In this paper, three-phase three-wire hybrid stepping motor (57HS350B) is selected. Its working voltage is 24 V, current is 5.8 A, and the maximum filling current of MSP430 single chip computer is 30 mA. Because SCM has no way to control the motor directly, the driving circuit is needed, so the performance of the driving circuit determines the performance of the automatic door. The drive circuit is constructed with discrete components to drive the automatic door to work. Using MSP430 MCU as the main controller, the static working current is small, suitable for a long time to work, build driving current, drive stepper motor to work, and drive the automatic door movement. This is a more preemptive attempt in automatic door control, which is the innovation of this paper.
1 自动门工作原理
1 Working Principle of Automatic Door
基于步进电机的自动门系统由9个局部组成,各个局部间的衔接状况.
The automatic door system based on stepper motor consists of nine parts and the connection between them.
自动门电机
Automatic door motor
MSP430单片机是系统的控制器,也是整个系统的中心模块,它接纳手动开关门按钮、速度调理按钮、红外感应器HZKT002[3]和行程开关传送过来的信号,经过火析处置后,将详细的动作命令转换成相应的输出信号,传送给脉冲分配器,转换成能控制步进电机工作的脉冲信号,此脉冲信号再保送给分立元件驱动电路,信号经放大后,驱动57HS350B步进电机做相应的作动,带动平开式自动门在导轨上运动,自动门导轨的开门和关门极限位置上装有行程开关,自动门运动到极限位置触碰行程开关后,行程开关将相应的信号传送给MSP430单片机。
MSP430 MCU is the controller of the system and the central module of the whole system. It accepts the signals transmitted by manual door button, speed adjustment button, infrared sensor HZKT002[3] and stroke switch. After pyrolysis disposal, the detailed action commands are converted into corresponding output signals, which are transmitted to pulse distributor and converted into pulse signals that can control the stepping motor. No. 1, the pulse signal is sent to the drive circuit of discrete components. After amplification, the 57HS350B stepper motor is driven to act accordingly, which drives the flat-open automatic door to move on the guide rail. The limit position of the open and close guide rails of the automatic door is equipped with a stroke switch. After the automatic door moves to the limit position and touches the stroke switch, the stroke switch transmits the corresponding signal to MSP430 single chip. Machine.
山东自动门电机
自动门分手动和自动两种工作状态:传感器正常工作时为自开工作状态;传感器失灵时,能够用手动开关门按钮控制自动门的开、关工作。
The automatic door is divided into two working states: the sensor is self-opening when it works normally; when the sensor fails, it can control the opening and closing of the automatic door with the manual switch button.
红外感应器HZKT002是一个全自动式感应器,感应范围为0.5 m~7 m,能够依据需求本人调理感应范围。当人体进入感应范围后,输出高电平;当人体分开感应范围后输出低电平。其工作电流为微安级别,所以能够直接与单片机相连。
Infrared sensor HZKT002 is a fully automatic sensor, the induction range is 0.5 m~7 m, can adjust the induction range according to the demand. When the human body enters the induction range, it outputs high level; when the human body separates the induction range, it outputs low level. Its working current is micro-ampere level, so it can be directly connected with the single chip computer.
系统中,设置了速度调理按钮,能够依据不同的需求,手动调理自动门的运动速度。
In the system, the speed adjustment button is set, which can adjust the speed of the automatic door manually according to different needs.
2 步进电机控制脉冲分配电路
2 Step Motor Control Pulse Distribution Circuit
步进电机是一种将电脉冲信号转换成直线或角位移的执行元件,它不能直接接到交直流电源上,必需运用专用的器件,将直流电源信号转换成电脉冲信号。典型步进电机控制系统如图2所示。控制器能够发出频率从几赫兹到几十千赫兹不等的脉冲,且脉冲频率能够连续变化。它为环形分配器提供脉冲序列。环形分配器的主要功用是把来自控制环节的脉冲序列按一定的规律分配后,经过功率放大器的放大加到步进电机驱动电源的各相输入端,以驱动步进电机的转动。
Stepping motor is a kind of actuator which converts electric pulse signal into linear or angular displacement. It can not be directly connected to AC/DC power supply. It is necessary to use special devices to convert DC power supply signal into electric pulse signal. The typical stepping motor control system is shown in Fig. 2. The controller can emit pulses with frequencies ranging from several hertz to tens of kilohertz, and the pulse frequencies can vary continuously. It provides the pulse sequence for the ring distributor. The main function of the ring distributor is to distribute the pulse sequence from the control link according to certain rules, and then add the amplification of the power amplifier to the input terminals of the driving power supply of the stepper motor to drive the rotation of the stepper motor.
环形分配器主要有两大类:一类是用计算机软件设计的办法完成环形分配器请求的功用,通常称为软环形分配器;另一类是用硬件构成的环形分配器,通常称为硬环形分配器。功率放大器主要对环形分配器的较小输出信号停止放大,以到达驱动步进电机的目的。本系统采用三相三线式的混合式步进电机(57HS350B),由于软环形分配器不稳定、易受外部干扰,故本系统采用硬环形分配器[5]。
There are two main types of circular distributors: one is to complete the function of circular distributor requests by means of computer software design, which is usually called soft-circular distributor; the other is circular distributor composed of hardware, which is usually called hard-circular distributor. The power amplifier mainly stops amplifying the small output signal of the ring distributor to achieve the purpose of driving the stepper motor. This system adopts a three-phase three-wire hybrid stepping motor (57HS350B). Because the soft ring distributor is unstable and vulnerable to external interference, the hard ring distributor is adopted in this system.
三相步进电机控制器是针对混合式三相步进电机的控制系统,主要由指令控制模块,脉冲分配模块和功率驱动模块构成。脉冲分配模块采用日本三肯公司的集成芯片SI-7600,该芯片能将输入的时钟信号分配成六路脉冲控制后级的功率驱动模块产生三相步进电机的工作时序。不只能经过改动该芯片的时钟频率来控制电机的转速,还能经过简单的逻辑信号控制电机的正反转和坚持。该芯片内置的死区生成器能够有效保证同组的两个功率芯片不会霎时短路。
Three-phase stepper motor controller is a control system for hybrid three-phase stepper motor. It is mainly composed of instruction control module, pulse distribution module and power drive module. The pulse allocation module adopts the integrated chip SI-7600 of Sanken Company of Japan, which can distribute the input clock signal into six power driving modules of the post-pulse control stage to generate the working sequence of three-phase stepping motor. It can not only control the speed of the motor by changing the clock frequency of the chip, but also control the positive and negative rotation and persistence of the motor by simple logic signal. The built-in dead-time generator of the chip can effectively ensure that the two power chips in the same group will not be short-circuited instantaneously.
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